Excavation processes can be as simple as hauling contaminated soil to a regulated landfill which is typically referred to as dig and haul. It can also involve aerating the excavated material in the case of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Recent advancements in bio-augmentation and bio-stimulation of the excavated material have also proven to be able to remediate semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) onsite. If the contamination affects a river or stream bottom, then dredging of bottom mud or other silty clays containing contaminants may be conducted. Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is a remediation and treatment technology that relies on the reaction between a binder and soil to stop/prevent or reduce the mobility of contaminants.